HGRP: Hybrid Grid Routing Protocol


This blog presents an overview a Wireless Network Protocol called HGRP: Hybrid Grid Routing Protocol for Heterogeneous Hierarchical Wireless Networks.

The field of computer and mobile networks is rapidly growing and new technologies emerged very fast. Various routing protocols are being developed for fast convergence and fast routing of data packets. Since, I am particularly interested in wireless networks therefore I decided to jot down some important features of HGRP in the form a blog.

The new HGRP can offer lower routing cost and energy consumption. Due to dynamic nature of wireless networks, designing protocols is major technical challenge. The mobile ad hoc protocols can be classified into Flat protocols and Hierarchical ones. The flat routing can be either proactive or on-demand routing. The hierarchical routing can be either zone based or cluster based.

In hierarchical routing, the network is divided into groups. Proactive routing is adopted for intra-group communication while reactive approach is used for intra-group communication. Heterogeneous wireless networks consist of backbone nodes and ordinary nodes with very different capabilities.

HGRP divides the network deployment area into grids, each of which contains one backbone routing node and some ordinary nodes. The framework of HGRP includes grid division, local and global routing.

Local routing is responsible for the communication between backbone and ordinary nodes within single grid. While, global routing is responsible for communication among the backbone nodes of other grids.

The first important issue of the HGRP is grid division. For this, two parameters: the grid size length and grid ID is needed.
Let the minimum transmission range of backbone nodes be R. Hence, the grid side length should be √2 R/4. A grid’s unique ID is represented by the coordinate of the grid, as shown below.
Diagram of parameters a and R.

Diagram of parameters a and R.

Routing Grids and their IDs

Routing Grids and their IDs

 

Proactive routing protocol provides each node’s surroundings at the local level ie within one grid.

With the use of simple mathematical algorithm, the protocol finds the least distance with backbone hosts. The protocol then use reactive or on-demand approach to communicate with other grids.

Backbone in HGRP has large transmission distance, so the shortest path with small numbers of hops can be found through the simple geometry algorithm. In HGRP, local and global routing has lower cost compared with the traditional AODV and ZRP.

HGRP is different from the current clustered routing. HGRP is based on the grid and the simple selection of backbone node according to its transmission capability and location.


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