Archive for category Telecommunication

Core vs. Edge: Why It Matters When Choosing a Switch


When considering buying a new switch for your small business, you need to ask yourself a few questions: How many devices will the switch need to support? What kinds of devices will I be connecting? Has our network grown to the point where we need a switch with more advanced management capabilities? And don’t forget one more important decision: whether this going to be a “core” or “edge” switch.

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Congratulations Sir Asad Umar


Congratulations sir on your victory in By-elections. I am a recent Electrical Engineering graduate. and we have high hopes from you that you will play effective role in boosting industries in Pakistan.

Asad Umar in Election Campaign for NA-48

I would like to specifically draw your attention in Telecommunication sector in Pakistan.

Sir, There is no mobile phone and other telecom devices manufacturing plant in Pakistan. We have experts in all fields like in software development, hardware designing, pcb designing e.t.c. required for manufacturing process. We have great many people who are interested in RnD and we seriously focus to reduce the technological gaps that we have.

One of my concern is what is the future of Pakistan if there is no latest technology exist in Pakistan? How our future engineers learn the new technology without proper planning and without facilities available in Pakistan?

Engineers have skill to design and make products, but they can’t establish a production/manufacturing units. It needs money which engineering graduates don’t have. It needs support from investors. But it is saddening that our investors prefer to invest in land, commercial buildings and other things but not in technology.

Sir, all eyes are on you and looking forward to your useful steps inside the assembly and outside.


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Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) – GSM – Telecommunication


The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) handles the switching of GSM calls between external networks and the BSCs in the radio subsystem and is also responsible for managing and providing external access to several customer databases. The MSC is the central unit in the NSS and controls the traffic among all of the BSCs. The NSS has three different databases called the Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Authentication Center (AUC).

  • The HLR is a database which contains subscriber information and location information for each user who resides in the same city as the MSC. Each subscriber in a particular GSM market is assigned a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), and this number is used to identify each home user.

  • The VLR is a database which temporarily stores the IMSI and customer information for each roaming subscriber who is visiting the coverage area of a particular MSC. The VLR is lined between several adjoining MSCs in a particular market or geographic region and contains subscription information of every visiting user in the area. Once a roaming mobile is logged in the VLR, the MSC sends the necessary information to the visiting subscriber’s HLR so that calls to the roaming mobile can be appropriately routed over the PSTN by the roaming user’s HLR.

  • The Authentication Center is a strongly protected database which handles the authentication and encryption keys for every single subscriber in the HLR and VLR. The Authentication Center contains a register called the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) which identifies stolen or fraudulently altered phones that transmit identity data that does not match with information contained in either the HLR or VLR.


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Operation Maintenance Center (OMC) – GSM – Telecommunication


Operation Maintenance Center (OMC) is used to monitor and maintain the performance of each Mobile Station (MS), Base Station (BS), Base Station Controller (BSC) and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) within a GSM system. The OMC has three main functions which are:

  1. To maintain all telecommunications hardware and network operations with a particular market.
  2. Manage all charging and billing procedures.
  3. Manage all mobile equipment in the system.

The OMC is dedicated to each of these tasks and has provisions for adjusting all base station parameters and billing procedures, as well as for providing system operators with the ability to determine the performance and integrity of each piece of subscriber equipment in the system.


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