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Urban Planning, Governance and Public Policy in Karachi


The city of Karachi, is home to over 20 million people and most populous urban area of Pakistan. The total area of Karachi is 3,527 km2, resulting in a population density of more than 5,670 people in km2. The city has great pressure to provide for ever growing population proper housing; efficient, reliable and sustainable transportation system; Infrastructure; clean water supply and sewerage system; Power and Energy; public education and health care. Despite the impressive economic growth over past decades, Karachi has been facing problems of improper use of Land area, irregular urban design, deteriorating transportation system and declining work and living conditions due to environment degeneration.
To handle the issues arising for huge population growth, a thorough in-depth studies and analysis is required for proper planning achieve sustainable development and socio-economic growth in the region. Karachi is facing similar challenges as any other highly dense urban city of the world like Beijing, Delhi, Mumbai, Dhaka, Istanbul, Tokyo etc. The future challenges for Karachi can be
  1. Meeting the demand for housing for exponentially increasing population
  2. Growing demand for drinking water and efficient sewerage system
  3. Provision of reliable and stable energy to large population
  4. Rapid economic growth and industrialization to absorb human capital resource
  5. Pursuing United Nations – Sustainable Development Goals.
However, I believe having huge population and population density is not always a disadvantage for economic development and growth. The proposed research is to seek current policy approaches to face the challenges and maneuver these into socio-economic advantage.  This studies and findings of this research can be extended and generalized to other urban areas of Pakistan. According to rough estimations by learned economists, Pakistan is going through rapidly urbanization and more than 60% of the country’s population is living in urban setting. The potential of high density population is enormous in terms of human capital, economic growth and technology diffusion. Currently, this potential is highly under-utilized which should be raised to optimal level. There could be many ways and in various domains to achieve this task.
Traditionally, urban planning is limited to basic infrastructures (underpass, overpass, highways etc), housing, education, job opportunities etc. This planning provides the hardware for urbanization; however, there is little to no focus on the software.
On technological front, we tend to highly depended on foreign investments, transfers and spillover to other sectors and industries. One of the urban features is to develop its own technology and utilized domestically and export.


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Orange Engineering Services


The ORANGE color depicts our continued enthusiasm, commitment and determination to Energy efficient energy solutions.

Hammad Ansari

Orange Engineering Services

We are dedicated to provide our customers efficient utilization of power, energy and fuel through our products and consultancy, thus keeping environment relatively green.

 

We pursue with the strategy to keep updated our potential customers of how we create value by showcasing relevant information.

We are guided by the philosophy of Continual Improvement, Customer-Focused effective and efficient Solutions and betterment of the society as a whole.

Mission:

To achieve innovative technological growth and energy efficient solutions.


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Cogeneration – Combined Heat and Power (CHP)


Cogeneration, also known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP), is the simultaneous production of electrical power and useful heat. Cogeneration systems generally employ “Topping Power Cycle” or “Bottoming Power Cycle”.

Topping Power Cycle:

Typical Cogeneration System Configuration

Typical Cogeneration System Configuration

In contrast to conventional fossil fuel based electric power generation, cogeneration system deliver some of the heat generated as a product which can be used for industrial heating processes and/or space cooling.

Bottoming Power Cycle:

Its basic principle is that high temperature exhaust heat rejected from an industrial process is used to produce steam or hot water, which can then be used to drive a steam turbine to produce electric power.

Both cycles enhance fuel utilization and improve energy conversion efficiency as well as provide a more economic, safe and reliable operation resulting in an overall reduction in operational cost.

In principle, a cogeneration system is composed of prime mover, electric power generator, heat recovery system, and control mechanism. The core of the cogeneration is the energy conversion unit that allows the combined production of electricity and heat. There are a number of different conversion technologies that have been deployed and used in combined heat and power (CHP) applications.


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What an Engineer wants in his/her Android Devices?


While looking for some Engineering-related Android app, I find these these apps very helpful and I thought to share it in this blog post. Please let me know what engineering-related mobile apps do you actually use or find most helpful? Thanks!
ElectroDroid:
It helps you avoid doing tedious computations by hand when designing circuits. Another feature you can often use is the standard connector types cheat-sheet.
PID LoopSim:
PID LoopSim is the free limited version of PID LoopSim Pro PID LoopSim is an Android-based simulator for PID practice. It may be used to improve tuning skills by adjusting the PID terms in real time and seeing the reaction of the system. Enter your process characteristics and try out the tuning parameters before applying them in your plant. The simulator shows, in real time, how your process will respond to your tuning parameters based on set point changes. This PID simulator responds in real-time speed in order to get plant-like experience. This means, the simulation responds at the same speed that the real plant would do in real life, so you can get a feel or tuning loops in the real plant.
ConvertPad – Unit Converter:
ConvertPad and ConvertPad Plus(Ad-free version) are most powerful and fully featured Unit converter, Currency converter and Calculator.
Flow-Xpert:
Oil and gas calculation library. Flow-Xpert is a comprehensive library of certified flow and fluid property calculations used in flow and level measurement systems.
Octave:
This app is an open-source Matlab clone for Android Plateform. Very useful for performing simulations on the go.
Groov:
Monitor & Control PLCs from smartphone or tablet.
Autodesk 360:
Quick way to view 2D and 3D DWG and DWF files on Android mobiles.

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Pakistan Economy Profile – January 2014


Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high.

Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty – the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis.

Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging over $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012.

Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing population. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, and reducing dependence on foreign donors. 

Per Capita annual income crosses $1044

 

Exports

$24.66 billion (2012 est.)

$26.3 billion (2011 est.)

 

Exports – commodities

Textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

 

Exports – partners

US 15%, UAE 9.7%, Afghanistan 9.5%, China 9.2%, UK 5%, Germany 4.5% (2012 est.)

 

Imports

$40.82 billion (2012 est.)

$38.93 billion (2011 est.)

 

Imports – commodities

Petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea

 

Imports – partners

UAE 17.2%, China 15%, Saudi Arabia 11.2%, Kuwait 8.9%, Malaysia 5.4%, Japan 4.3% (2012 est.)

 

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$514.6 billion (2012 est.)

$496.3 billion (2011 est.)

$481.7 billion (2010 est.)

Note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$230.5 billion (2012 est.)

 

GDP – real growth rate

3.7% (2012 est.)

3% (2011 est.)

3.1% (2010 est.)

 

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$2,900 (2012 est.)

$2,800 (2011 est.)

$2,800 (2010 est.)

Note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP – composition by sector

Agriculture: 20.1%

Industry: 25.5%

Services: 54.4% (2012 est.)

 

Population below poverty line

22.3% (FY05/06 est.)

 

Labor force

60.36 million

Note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)

 

Labor force – by occupation

Agriculture: 45.1%

Industry: 20.7%

Services: 34.2% (2010 est.)

 

Unemployment rate

5.6% (2012 est.)

5.6% (2011 est.)

Note: substantial underemployment exists

Unemployment

Youth ages 15-24

Total: 7.7%

Male: 7%

Female: 10.5% (2008)

 

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Lowest 10%: 9.9%

Highest 10%: 39.3% (FY07/08)

 

Distribution of family income – Gini index

30.6 (FY07/08)

41 (FY98/99)

 

Investment (gross fixed)

10.9% of GDP (2012 est.)

 

Budget

Revenues: $29.51 billion

Expenditures: $44.19 billion (2012 est.)

 

Taxes and other revenues

12.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6.4% of GDP (2012 est.)

 

Public debt

50.4% of GDP (2012 est.)

60.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

 

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.3% (2012 est.)

11.9% (2011 est.)

 

Central bank discount rate

12% (31 January 2012 est.)

14% (31 December 2010 est.)

 

Commercial bank prime lending rate

12.2% (31 December 2012 est.)

14.12% (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of narrow money

$60.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$56.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of money

$NA (31 December 2008)

$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of quasi money

$NA (31 December 2008)

$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of broad money

$76.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

$71.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

 

Stock of domestic credit

$92.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$86.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Market value of publicly traded shares

$32.76 billion (31 December 2011)

$38.17 billion (31 December 2010)

$33.24 billion (31 December 2009)

 

Agriculture – products

Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Industries

Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

 

Industrial production growth rate

3% (2011 est.)

 

Current Account Balance

-$4.632 billion (2012 est.)

$268 million (2011 est.)

 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$13.5 billion (30 November 2012 est.)

$18.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Debt – external

$55.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$58.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home

$22.38 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad 

$1.482 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Pakistan Current Economy is in very bad Shape, people are loosing faith in government for last 6 years. It is time that all Pakistani leader take a joint action for the economy.

Remittances from OVERSEAS PAKISTANIS of about $20 billion per year is keeping the Pakistan meeting his international obligation and keep the country running.  Pakistan Government should thankful for their support of Pakistan and should give them the full right to vote and run for the public office in Pakistan.

Pakistan should fellow Turkey for Economy reform and Development. Turkey Economic Reforms working well, Legal Reform law was adopted and working well, Social Reform law was adopted and working well, Government Reform process moving in the right direction.

Turkey rapid economical development present Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan & President Abdullah Gul Honest and Good Economic Management in Turkey.

Best Regards,
Habib Syed,
President, Karachi to Istanbul Free Trade Area Business Council Montreal, Canada. January 29, 2014.


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Congratulations Sir Asad Umar


Congratulations sir on your victory in By-elections. I am a recent Electrical Engineering graduate. and we have high hopes from you that you will play effective role in boosting industries in Pakistan.

Asad Umar in Election Campaign for NA-48

I would like to specifically draw your attention in Telecommunication sector in Pakistan.

Sir, There is no mobile phone and other telecom devices manufacturing plant in Pakistan. We have experts in all fields like in software development, hardware designing, pcb designing e.t.c. required for manufacturing process. We have great many people who are interested in RnD and we seriously focus to reduce the technological gaps that we have.

One of my concern is what is the future of Pakistan if there is no latest technology exist in Pakistan? How our future engineers learn the new technology without proper planning and without facilities available in Pakistan?

Engineers have skill to design and make products, but they can’t establish a production/manufacturing units. It needs money which engineering graduates don’t have. It needs support from investors. But it is saddening that our investors prefer to invest in land, commercial buildings and other things but not in technology.

Sir, all eyes are on you and looking forward to your useful steps inside the assembly and outside.


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Dealing with Education Deprived and Poverty Stricken Radical Forces


Far from home, but closer to school in Pakistan

Our society is in clear dilemma that how to deal with the growing terrorism in Pakistan. One school of thought is of the view that we should use all our Military power and crack down on all those problem creating elements. Another school says that we should negotiate with them and give some space for a larger good of the whole country and to stop the radical forces’ justification of killing innocent people. One thing is clear that both of these school of thoughts are apparently sincere in their efforts to bring peace in Pakistan and no school want terrorism to rise.

To come to the solution, we need to understand how these terrorists in tribal areas think. The common belief is that they are all crazy people and want to destroy the whole world. True, they are indeed crazy frustrated people.

But, I also believe that this might not be the complete truth. To understand their mentality, let’s put ourselves in their shoe. Imagine you are a normal 10 years boy living in FATA. You should be full of sports, games and friends. You deserve at least basic education opportunity, basic human rights, and rule of law and better family economic conditions. Unfortunately, this is not the case with majority of poor children in that particular area of Pakistan.
Sharmeen Obaid, in one of her talk, asked if we had grown up in these circumstances, faced with the choice either to live in this world or in the glorious hereafter? Honestly, if I were raised in these circumstances that make it so hard to make a living, I would definitely regard the glory of martyrdom as the persuasive truth. I probably could not consider that there might be any other choice.

Having said that, I do not justify Pakistani Taliban actions. What I am trying to say is that unless we dedicate ourselves to helping the families get rid of poverty and provide education to the children, we cannot stop the menace of terrorism.

For this we might have to bring reluctant militants on table and assure them of better economic activities in the region and better education opportunities to their children.


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