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- Meeting the demand for housing for exponentially increasing population
- Growing demand for drinking water and efficient sewerage system
- Provision of reliable and stable energy to large population
- Rapid economic growth and industrialization to absorb human capital resource
- Pursuing United Nations – Sustainable Development Goals.
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Cogeneration, also known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP), is the simultaneous production of electrical power and useful heat. Cogeneration systems generally employ “Topping Power Cycle” or “Bottoming Power Cycle”.
Topping Power Cycle:
In contrast to conventional fossil fuel based electric power generation, cogeneration system deliver some of the heat generated as a product which can be used for industrial heating processes and/or space cooling.
Bottoming Power Cycle:
Its basic principle is that high temperature exhaust heat rejected from an industrial process is used to produce steam or hot water, which can then be used to drive a steam turbine to produce electric power.
Both cycles enhance fuel utilization and improve energy conversion efficiency as well as provide a more economic, safe and reliable operation resulting in an overall reduction in operational cost.
In principle, a cogeneration system is composed of prime mover, electric power generator, heat recovery system, and control mechanism. The core of the cogeneration is the energy conversion unit that allows the combined production of electricity and heat. There are a number of different conversion technologies that have been deployed and used in combined heat and power (CHP) applications.
It helps you avoid doing tedious computations by hand when designing circuits. Another feature you can often use is the standard connector types cheat-sheet.
PID LoopSim is the free limited version of PID LoopSim Pro PID LoopSim is an Android-based simulator for PID practice. It may be used to improve tuning skills by adjusting the PID terms in real time and seeing the reaction of the system. Enter your process characteristics and try out the tuning parameters before applying them in your plant. The simulator shows, in real time, how your process will respond to your tuning parameters based on set point changes. This PID simulator responds in real-time speed in order to get plant-like experience. This means, the simulation responds at the same speed that the real plant would do in real life, so you can get a feel or tuning loops in the real plant.
ConvertPad – Unit Converter:
ConvertPad and ConvertPad Plus(Ad-free version) are most powerful and fully featured Unit converter, Currency converter and Calculator.
Oil and gas calculation library. Flow-Xpert is a comprehensive library of certified flow and fluid property calculations used in flow and level measurement systems.
This app is an open-source Matlab clone for Android Plateform. Very useful for performing simulations on the go.
Monitor & Control PLCs from smartphone or tablet.
Quick way to view 2D and 3D DWG and DWF files on Android mobiles.
Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high.
Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty – the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis.
Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging over $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012.
Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing population. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.
Per Capita annual income crosses $1044
$24.66 billion (2012 est.)
$26.3 billion (2011 est.)
Exports – commodities
Textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports – partners
US 15%, UAE 9.7%, Afghanistan 9.5%, China 9.2%, UK 5%, Germany 4.5% (2012 est.)
$40.82 billion (2012 est.)
$38.93 billion (2011 est.)
Imports – commodities
Petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports – partners
UAE 17.2%, China 15%, Saudi Arabia 11.2%, Kuwait 8.9%, Malaysia 5.4%, Japan 4.3% (2012 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$514.6 billion (2012 est.)
$496.3 billion (2011 est.)
$481.7 billion (2010 est.)
Note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)
$230.5 billion (2012 est.)
GDP – real growth rate
3.7% (2012 est.)
3% (2011 est.)
3.1% (2010 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP)
$2,900 (2012 est.)
$2,800 (2011 est.)
$2,800 (2010 est.)
Note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector
Services: 54.4% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line
22.3% (FY05/06 est.)
Note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)
Labor force – by occupation
Services: 34.2% (2010 est.)
5.6% (2012 est.)
5.6% (2011 est.)
Note: substantial underemployment exists
Youth ages 15-24
Female: 10.5% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 9.9%
Highest 10%: 39.3% (FY07/08)
Distribution of family income – Gini index
Investment (gross fixed)
10.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Revenues: $29.51 billion
Expenditures: $44.19 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
12.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-6.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
50.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
60.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
11.3% (2012 est.)
11.9% (2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate
12% (31 January 2012 est.)
14% (31 December 2010 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
14.12% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$60.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$56.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of money
$NA (31 December 2008)
$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money
$NA (31 December 2008)
$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of broad money
$76.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$71.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$92.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$86.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010)
$33.24 billion (31 December 2009)
Agriculture – products
Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate
3% (2011 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$4.632 billion (2012 est.)
$268 million (2011 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$13.5 billion (30 November 2012 est.)
$18.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt – external
$55.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$58.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home
$22.38 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad
$1.482 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Pakistan Current Economy is in very bad Shape, people are loosing faith in government for last 6 years. It is time that all Pakistani leader take a joint action for the economy.
Remittances from OVERSEAS PAKISTANIS of about $20 billion per year is keeping the Pakistan meeting his international obligation and keep the country running. Pakistan Government should thankful for their support of Pakistan and should give them the full right to vote and run for the public office in Pakistan.
Pakistan should fellow Turkey for Economy reform and Development. Turkey Economic Reforms working well, Legal Reform law was adopted and working well, Social Reform law was adopted and working well, Government Reform process moving in the right direction.
Turkey rapid economical development present Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan & President Abdullah Gul Honest and Good Economic Management in Turkey.
President, Karachi to Istanbul Free Trade Area Business Council Montreal, Canada. January 29, 2014.
Congratulations sir on your victory in By-elections. I am a recent Electrical Engineering graduate. and we have high hopes from you that you will play effective role in boosting industries in Pakistan.
I would like to specifically draw your attention in Telecommunication sector in Pakistan.
Sir, There is no mobile phone and other telecom devices manufacturing plant in Pakistan. We have experts in all fields like in software development, hardware designing, pcb designing e.t.c. required for manufacturing process. We have great many people who are interested in RnD and we seriously focus to reduce the technological gaps that we have.
One of my concern is what is the future of Pakistan if there is no latest technology exist in Pakistan? How our future engineers learn the new technology without proper planning and without facilities available in Pakistan?
Engineers have skill to design and make products, but they can’t establish a production/manufacturing units. It needs money which engineering graduates don’t have. It needs support from investors. But it is saddening that our investors prefer to invest in land, commercial buildings and other things but not in technology.
Sir, all eyes are on you and looking forward to your useful steps inside the assembly and outside.
Our society is in clear dilemma that how to deal with the growing terrorism in Pakistan. One school of thought is of the view that we should use all our Military power and crack down on all those problem creating elements. Another school says that we should negotiate with them and give some space for a larger good of the whole country and to stop the radical forces’ justification of killing innocent people. One thing is clear that both of these school of thoughts are apparently sincere in their efforts to bring peace in Pakistan and no school want terrorism to rise.
To come to the solution, we need to understand how these terrorists in tribal areas think. The common belief is that they are all crazy people and want to destroy the whole world. True, they are indeed crazy frustrated people.
But, I also believe that this might not be the complete truth. To understand their mentality, let’s put ourselves in their shoe. Imagine you are a normal 10 years boy living in FATA. You should be full of sports, games and friends. You deserve at least basic education opportunity, basic human rights, and rule of law and better family economic conditions. Unfortunately, this is not the case with majority of poor children in that particular area of Pakistan.
Sharmeen Obaid, in one of her talk, asked if we had grown up in these circumstances, faced with the choice either to live in this world or in the glorious hereafter? Honestly, if I were raised in these circumstances that make it so hard to make a living, I would definitely regard the glory of martyrdom as the persuasive truth. I probably could not consider that there might be any other choice.
Having said that, I do not justify Pakistani Taliban actions. What I am trying to say is that unless we dedicate ourselves to helping the families get rid of poverty and provide education to the children, we cannot stop the menace of terrorism.
For this we might have to bring reluctant militants on table and assure them of better economic activities in the region and better education opportunities to their children.