It helps you avoid doing tedious computations by hand when designing circuits. Another feature you can often use is the standard connector types cheat-sheet.
PID LoopSim is the free limited version of PID LoopSim Pro PID LoopSim is an Android-based simulator for PID practice. It may be used to improve tuning skills by adjusting the PID terms in real time and seeing the reaction of the system. Enter your process characteristics and try out the tuning parameters before applying them in your plant. The simulator shows, in real time, how your process will respond to your tuning parameters based on set point changes. This PID simulator responds in real-time speed in order to get plant-like experience. This means, the simulation responds at the same speed that the real plant would do in real life, so you can get a feel or tuning loops in the real plant.
ConvertPad – Unit Converter:
ConvertPad and ConvertPad Plus(Ad-free version) are most powerful and fully featured Unit converter, Currency converter and Calculator.
Oil and gas calculation library. Flow-Xpert is a comprehensive library of certified flow and fluid property calculations used in flow and level measurement systems.
This app is an open-source Matlab clone for Android Plateform. Very useful for performing simulations on the go.
Monitor & Control PLCs from smartphone or tablet.
Quick way to view 2D and 3D DWG and DWF files on Android mobiles.
Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high.
Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty – the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis.
Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging over $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012.
Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing population. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.
Per Capita annual income crosses $1044
$24.66 billion (2012 est.)
$26.3 billion (2011 est.)
Exports – commodities
Textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports – partners
US 15%, UAE 9.7%, Afghanistan 9.5%, China 9.2%, UK 5%, Germany 4.5% (2012 est.)
$40.82 billion (2012 est.)
$38.93 billion (2011 est.)
Imports – commodities
Petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports – partners
UAE 17.2%, China 15%, Saudi Arabia 11.2%, Kuwait 8.9%, Malaysia 5.4%, Japan 4.3% (2012 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$514.6 billion (2012 est.)
$496.3 billion (2011 est.)
$481.7 billion (2010 est.)
Note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)
$230.5 billion (2012 est.)
GDP – real growth rate
3.7% (2012 est.)
3% (2011 est.)
3.1% (2010 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP)
$2,900 (2012 est.)
$2,800 (2011 est.)
$2,800 (2010 est.)
Note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector
Services: 54.4% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line
22.3% (FY05/06 est.)
Note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)
Labor force – by occupation
Services: 34.2% (2010 est.)
5.6% (2012 est.)
5.6% (2011 est.)
Note: substantial underemployment exists
Youth ages 15-24
Female: 10.5% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 9.9%
Highest 10%: 39.3% (FY07/08)
Distribution of family income – Gini index
Investment (gross fixed)
10.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Revenues: $29.51 billion
Expenditures: $44.19 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
12.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-6.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
50.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
60.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
11.3% (2012 est.)
11.9% (2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate
12% (31 January 2012 est.)
14% (31 December 2010 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
14.12% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$60.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$56.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of money
$NA (31 December 2008)
$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money
$NA (31 December 2008)
$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of broad money
$76.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$71.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$92.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$86.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010)
$33.24 billion (31 December 2009)
Agriculture – products
Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate
3% (2011 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$4.632 billion (2012 est.)
$268 million (2011 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$13.5 billion (30 November 2012 est.)
$18.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt – external
$55.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$58.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home
$22.38 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad
$1.482 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Pakistan Current Economy is in very bad Shape, people are loosing faith in government for last 6 years. It is time that all Pakistani leader take a joint action for the economy.
Remittances from OVERSEAS PAKISTANIS of about $20 billion per year is keeping the Pakistan meeting his international obligation and keep the country running. Pakistan Government should thankful for their support of Pakistan and should give them the full right to vote and run for the public office in Pakistan.
Pakistan should fellow Turkey for Economy reform and Development. Turkey Economic Reforms working well, Legal Reform law was adopted and working well, Social Reform law was adopted and working well, Government Reform process moving in the right direction.
Turkey rapid economical development present Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan & President Abdullah Gul Honest and Good Economic Management in Turkey.
President, Karachi to Istanbul Free Trade Area Business Council Montreal, Canada. January 29, 2014.
When considering buying a new switch for your small business, you need to ask yourself a few questions: How many devices will the switch need to support? What kinds of devices will I be connecting? Has our network grown to the point where we need a switch with more advanced management capabilities? And don’t forget one more important decision: whether this going to be a “core” or “edge” switch.
Congratulations sir on your victory in By-elections. I am a recent Electrical Engineering graduate. and we have high hopes from you that you will play effective role in boosting industries in Pakistan.
I would like to specifically draw your attention in Telecommunication sector in Pakistan.
Sir, There is no mobile phone and other telecom devices manufacturing plant in Pakistan. We have experts in all fields like in software development, hardware designing, pcb designing e.t.c. required for manufacturing process. We have great many people who are interested in RnD and we seriously focus to reduce the technological gaps that we have.
One of my concern is what is the future of Pakistan if there is no latest technology exist in Pakistan? How our future engineers learn the new technology without proper planning and without facilities available in Pakistan?
Engineers have skill to design and make products, but they can’t establish a production/manufacturing units. It needs money which engineering graduates don’t have. It needs support from investors. But it is saddening that our investors prefer to invest in land, commercial buildings and other things but not in technology.
Sir, all eyes are on you and looking forward to your useful steps inside the assembly and outside.
The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) handles the switching of GSM calls between external networks and the BSCs in the radio subsystem and is also responsible for managing and providing external access to several customer databases. The MSC is the central unit in the NSS and controls the traffic among all of the BSCs. The NSS has three different databases called the Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Authentication Center (AUC).
The HLR is a database which contains subscriber information and location information for each user who resides in the same city as the MSC. Each subscriber in a particular GSM market is assigned a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), and this number is used to identify each home user.
The VLR is a database which temporarily stores the IMSI and customer information for each roaming subscriber who is visiting the coverage area of a particular MSC. The VLR is lined between several adjoining MSCs in a particular market or geographic region and contains subscription information of every visiting user in the area. Once a roaming mobile is logged in the VLR, the MSC sends the necessary information to the visiting subscriber’s HLR so that calls to the roaming mobile can be appropriately routed over the PSTN by the roaming user’s HLR.
The Authentication Center is a strongly protected database which handles the authentication and encryption keys for every single subscriber in the HLR and VLR. The Authentication Center contains a register called the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) which identifies stolen or fraudulently altered phones that transmit identity data that does not match with information contained in either the HLR or VLR.