What an Engineer wants in his/her Android Devices?


While looking for some Engineering-related Android app, I find these these apps very helpful and I thought to share it in this blog post. Please let me know what engineering-related mobile apps do you actually use or find most helpful? Thanks!
ElectroDroid:
It helps you avoid doing tedious computations by hand when designing circuits. Another feature you can often use is the standard connector types cheat-sheet.
PID LoopSim:
PID LoopSim is the free limited version of PID LoopSim Pro PID LoopSim is an Android-based simulator for PID practice. It may be used to improve tuning skills by adjusting the PID terms in real time and seeing the reaction of the system. Enter your process characteristics and try out the tuning parameters before applying them in your plant. The simulator shows, in real time, how your process will respond to your tuning parameters based on set point changes. This PID simulator responds in real-time speed in order to get plant-like experience. This means, the simulation responds at the same speed that the real plant would do in real life, so you can get a feel or tuning loops in the real plant.
ConvertPad – Unit Converter:
ConvertPad and ConvertPad Plus(Ad-free version) are most powerful and fully featured Unit converter, Currency converter and Calculator.
Flow-Xpert:
Oil and gas calculation library. Flow-Xpert is a comprehensive library of certified flow and fluid property calculations used in flow and level measurement systems.
Octave:
This app is an open-source Matlab clone for Android Plateform. Very useful for performing simulations on the go.
Groov:
Monitor & Control PLCs from smartphone or tablet.
Autodesk 360:
Quick way to view 2D and 3D DWG and DWF files on Android mobiles.

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Forward and Reverse Synchronization in Electrical Systems


Synchronization:

Synchronization is a process of matching the voltage, frequency, phase angle and sequence of two AC power sources and running them in parallel. Other quantities can supplement in the process of synchronization, namely, rate of change of frequency and the rate of change of voltage. When synchronization is done properly, the systems mesh together and continue running harmoniously thereafter. However, when done poorly, synchronization can result in large, damaging inrush currents in the stator of the generator and unacceptable mechanical stress on the rotor shaft.
Depending on the direction, the process of synchronization can be divided into two types, viz. forward and reverse Synchronization.

 

Forward Synchronization:

In Forward Synchronization, the voltage, frequency and phase angle of the incoming generator is synchronized to match the values of the bus bar. This is generally used when a generator needs to be synchronized with an already charged bus bar.

 

Reverse Synchronization:

Reverse Synchronization or backward synchronization is generally done when the supply from a grid utility is needed to be synchronized with a bus bar in the factory. Since, it is not possible to alter the voltage, frequency, etc. of the incomer, in this case, the grid. The voltage, frequency, etc. of the bus bar are adjusted to match the incomer.


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14pc of energy consumption in EU is from Renewables


A new Eurostat report states that in 2012, energy from renewable sources was estimated to have contributed 14.1% of gross final energy consumption in the EU28, compared with 8.3% in 2004, the first year for which this data is available. The share of renewables in gross final energy consumption is one of the headline indicators of the Europe 2020 strategy. The target to be reached by 2020 for the EU28 is a share of 20% renewable energy use in gross final energy consumption. The national targets take into account the Member States’ different starting points, renewable energy potential and economic performance.
Share of Energy from Renewables, EU28.

Share of Energy from Renewables, EU28.

These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, and highlight the development of renewable energy sources in energy consumption in the EU28 and the Member States.
Largest increases in share of renewables between 2004 and 2012 in Sweden, Denmark and Austria Since 2004, the share of renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy grew in all Member States. The largest increases during this period were recorded in Sweden (from 38.7% in 2004 to 51.0% in 2012), Denmark (from 14.5% to 26.0%), Austria (from 22.7% to 32.1%), Greece (from 7.2% to 15.1%) and Italy (from 5.7% to 13.5%).
The highest shares of renewable energy in final energy consumption in 2012 were found in Sweden (51.0% of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy), Latvia (35.8%), Finland (34.3%) and Austria (32.1%), and the lowest in Malta (1.4%), Luxembourg (3.1%), the United Kingdom (4.2%) and the Netherlands (4.5%). In 2011, Estonia was the first Member State to reach its 2020 target and in 2012 Bulgaria, Estonia and Sweden already achieved their 2020 targets (16%, 25% and 49% respectively).
Shares of Energy from Renewable sources per Member State

Shares of Energy from Renewable sources per Member State


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Pakistan Economy Profile – January 2014


Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high.

Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty – the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis.

Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging over $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012.

Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing population. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, and reducing dependence on foreign donors. 

Per Capita annual income crosses $1044

 

Exports

$24.66 billion (2012 est.)

$26.3 billion (2011 est.)

 

Exports – commodities

Textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

 

Exports – partners

US 15%, UAE 9.7%, Afghanistan 9.5%, China 9.2%, UK 5%, Germany 4.5% (2012 est.)

 

Imports

$40.82 billion (2012 est.)

$38.93 billion (2011 est.)

 

Imports – commodities

Petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea

 

Imports – partners

UAE 17.2%, China 15%, Saudi Arabia 11.2%, Kuwait 8.9%, Malaysia 5.4%, Japan 4.3% (2012 est.)

 

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$514.6 billion (2012 est.)

$496.3 billion (2011 est.)

$481.7 billion (2010 est.)

Note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$230.5 billion (2012 est.)

 

GDP – real growth rate

3.7% (2012 est.)

3% (2011 est.)

3.1% (2010 est.)

 

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$2,900 (2012 est.)

$2,800 (2011 est.)

$2,800 (2010 est.)

Note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP – composition by sector

Agriculture: 20.1%

Industry: 25.5%

Services: 54.4% (2012 est.)

 

Population below poverty line

22.3% (FY05/06 est.)

 

Labor force

60.36 million

Note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)

 

Labor force – by occupation

Agriculture: 45.1%

Industry: 20.7%

Services: 34.2% (2010 est.)

 

Unemployment rate

5.6% (2012 est.)

5.6% (2011 est.)

Note: substantial underemployment exists

Unemployment

Youth ages 15-24

Total: 7.7%

Male: 7%

Female: 10.5% (2008)

 

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Lowest 10%: 9.9%

Highest 10%: 39.3% (FY07/08)

 

Distribution of family income – Gini index

30.6 (FY07/08)

41 (FY98/99)

 

Investment (gross fixed)

10.9% of GDP (2012 est.)

 

Budget

Revenues: $29.51 billion

Expenditures: $44.19 billion (2012 est.)

 

Taxes and other revenues

12.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6.4% of GDP (2012 est.)

 

Public debt

50.4% of GDP (2012 est.)

60.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

 

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.3% (2012 est.)

11.9% (2011 est.)

 

Central bank discount rate

12% (31 January 2012 est.)

14% (31 December 2010 est.)

 

Commercial bank prime lending rate

12.2% (31 December 2012 est.)

14.12% (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of narrow money

$60.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$56.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of money

$NA (31 December 2008)

$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of quasi money

$NA (31 December 2008)

$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of broad money

$76.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

$71.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

 

Stock of domestic credit

$92.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$86.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Market value of publicly traded shares

$32.76 billion (31 December 2011)

$38.17 billion (31 December 2010)

$33.24 billion (31 December 2009)

 

Agriculture – products

Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Industries

Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

 

Industrial production growth rate

3% (2011 est.)

 

Current Account Balance

-$4.632 billion (2012 est.)

$268 million (2011 est.)

 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$13.5 billion (30 November 2012 est.)

$18.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Debt – external

$55.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$58.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home

$22.38 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

 

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad 

$1.482 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Pakistan Current Economy is in very bad Shape, people are loosing faith in government for last 6 years. It is time that all Pakistani leader take a joint action for the economy.

Remittances from OVERSEAS PAKISTANIS of about $20 billion per year is keeping the Pakistan meeting his international obligation and keep the country running.  Pakistan Government should thankful for their support of Pakistan and should give them the full right to vote and run for the public office in Pakistan.

Pakistan should fellow Turkey for Economy reform and Development. Turkey Economic Reforms working well, Legal Reform law was adopted and working well, Social Reform law was adopted and working well, Government Reform process moving in the right direction.

Turkey rapid economical development present Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan & President Abdullah Gul Honest and Good Economic Management in Turkey.

Best Regards,
Habib Syed,
President, Karachi to Istanbul Free Trade Area Business Council Montreal, Canada. January 29, 2014.


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Core vs. Edge: Why It Matters When Choosing a Switch


When considering buying a new switch for your small business, you need to ask yourself a few questions: How many devices will the switch need to support? What kinds of devices will I be connecting? Has our network grown to the point where we need a switch with more advanced management capabilities? And don’t forget one more important decision: whether this going to be a “core” or “edge” switch.

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Congratulations Sir Asad Umar


Congratulations sir on your victory in By-elections. I am a recent Electrical Engineering graduate. and we have high hopes from you that you will play effective role in boosting industries in Pakistan.

Asad Umar in Election Campaign for NA-48

I would like to specifically draw your attention in Telecommunication sector in Pakistan.

Sir, There is no mobile phone and other telecom devices manufacturing plant in Pakistan. We have experts in all fields like in software development, hardware designing, pcb designing e.t.c. required for manufacturing process. We have great many people who are interested in RnD and we seriously focus to reduce the technological gaps that we have.

One of my concern is what is the future of Pakistan if there is no latest technology exist in Pakistan? How our future engineers learn the new technology without proper planning and without facilities available in Pakistan?

Engineers have skill to design and make products, but they can’t establish a production/manufacturing units. It needs money which engineering graduates don’t have. It needs support from investors. But it is saddening that our investors prefer to invest in land, commercial buildings and other things but not in technology.

Sir, all eyes are on you and looking forward to your useful steps inside the assembly and outside.


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Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) – GSM – Telecommunication


The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) handles the switching of GSM calls between external networks and the BSCs in the radio subsystem and is also responsible for managing and providing external access to several customer databases. The MSC is the central unit in the NSS and controls the traffic among all of the BSCs. The NSS has three different databases called the Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Authentication Center (AUC).

  • The HLR is a database which contains subscriber information and location information for each user who resides in the same city as the MSC. Each subscriber in a particular GSM market is assigned a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), and this number is used to identify each home user.

  • The VLR is a database which temporarily stores the IMSI and customer information for each roaming subscriber who is visiting the coverage area of a particular MSC. The VLR is lined between several adjoining MSCs in a particular market or geographic region and contains subscription information of every visiting user in the area. Once a roaming mobile is logged in the VLR, the MSC sends the necessary information to the visiting subscriber’s HLR so that calls to the roaming mobile can be appropriately routed over the PSTN by the roaming user’s HLR.

  • The Authentication Center is a strongly protected database which handles the authentication and encryption keys for every single subscriber in the HLR and VLR. The Authentication Center contains a register called the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) which identifies stolen or fraudulently altered phones that transmit identity data that does not match with information contained in either the HLR or VLR.


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